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Jack is a graduate of Rutgers University where he majored in history. His career in the life and health insurance industry involved medical risk selection and brokerage management. Retired in Florida for over two decades after many years in NJ and NY, he occasionally writes, paints, plays poker, participates in play readings and is catching up on Shakespeare, Melville and Joyce, etc.

Thursday, April 28, 2022

04-28-2022 - A New Definition of the 'Big Lie,' What I Post on 'Letters from an American' and Some Local Politics



(There’s a little envelope at the bottom left corner of each posting enabling you to easily do that.  It looks like this:   .   Just click on it and follow the instructions.  It will forward the text of the blog posting, but not any images ... like that little envelope ... to whomever you want.)  




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Redefining 'the Big Lie' Truthfully at Last

Let's define the defeated former president's 'big lie' more specifically. 

(Traditionally, the 'big lie,' as utilized by Adolph Hitler and more recently, by our defeated former president, is a 'lie' of such vast dimensions and, so widely accepted, that it is almost impossible for the public not to believe that there has to be some truth to it, even though there is none whatsoever.)  

Actually today's American version is far more than such a 'lie.'  It is a 'criminal conspiracy' designed to attack the government and defy the Constitution.  Its heart is the 'stop the steal' movement and the insurrection of January 6, 2021, both illegal Republican efforts to reverse the results of the 2020 presidential election.  

The most interesting part of it, however, is that many Republicans while going on record in varying degrees as recognizing and accepting this truthful definition of it, still insist that they would vote for the defeated former president should he run again and support his actions as part of their campaigns for whatever office they seek.  Sane people see a 'disconnect' there.  Republicans do not. 

They think attempting to violently and illegally attack the Consitution is perfectly acceptable, as long as it gets them votes from the vast pool of American idiots and bigots that the Constitution's First Amendment  permits to exist.  Make your own decision as to their integrity.  Most Republicans have none.  

How anyone can vote for a candidate or for a party that lacks both sanity and integrity is beyond me.


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You might have noticed that Jackspotpourri, to avoid contamination, tries to avoid using the name of the 45th president of the United States.  Instead, that person is usually referred to as 'the defeated former president.'


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Excerpts from My Comments on “Letters from an American

Here’s an assortment of comments which I recently made on Boston College Professor Heather Cox Richardson’s daily newsletter:  “Letters from an American.” (https://heathercoxrichardson.substack.com/)  Read them and you’ll know where I stand. 

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This one I posted after reading some searching remarks there about the attacks on democracy that appear in the media each day:

 “Not that many Americans will bother to read lengthy pieces like HCR's analysis today, and for that matter, your comments.  Too many are simply politically apathetic or satisfied with the more concise and incendiary outbursts that the country's anti-democratic minority post on social media. They know their audience. The Pew study confirmed this in 2020 and things probably are worse today. The correct link to that study ishttps://www.pewresearch.org/journalism/2020/07/30/americans-who-mainly-get-their-news-on-social-media-are-less-engaged-less-knowledgeable/  

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These two comments, in which I make concrete recommendations, were in response to a list of revelations justifying the arrest and prosecution of those who inspired the January 6, 2021 insurrection: 

“What you say is correct. But our system gives them numerous legal defenses. Fighting liars and traitors on the battlefield chosen by them will take years and by then the pendulum of history will have swung too far to the right, where it might be stuck for a while. The answer is to pour sufficient resources and energy into the campaigns of the opponents of Greene, Cawthorn, DeSantis and similar Republicans so that they are soundly defeated at the polls on November 8. (Not allowing Greene to run would probably increase support for whomever replaces her on the ballot.) If it cannot be accomplished that way, we will have to wait for the pendulum to swing back a few generations from now. (As I have said numerous times, winning at the polls requires a massive turnout of women voters and of persons of color.)” 

                                                           *  *  * 

“The Democrats don't know how to 'message.' Give them information like this and they will waste their efforts 'preaching it to the choir.' Here is what I recommend: Develop a 60 second commercial featuring excerpts from McConnell's and McCarthy's immediate anti-Trump statements on January 6 and 7, 2021. (fifteen seconds each.) Point out that since then, each of them have changed their tunes which makes them liars. (ten seconds each.) Then simply state that there is an alternative on Election Day. (final ten seconds.) Run it a dozen times an evening from now till Election Day (unless something even more explosive comes along) on Fox, Newsmax and OAN, all of which are in the business of selling advertising time.”

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And here’s one I posted in response to a comment expressing pleasure that a prosecutor was ‘filing a motion’ to hold the defeated former president in contempt for not producing subpoenaed documents:

 "Filing a motion" means agreeing to play the game on the battlefield chosen by the enemies of democracy, one where their lawyers can endlessly practice obfuscation. When secessionists fired on Fort Sumter in 1861, Abraham Lincoln did more than file a motion. He was not deterred by the possibility of civil war, which Attorney General Garland seems to be, even as his case becomes stronger and stronger with each revelation.”

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The day after the elections in France and Slovenia, which were encouraging to friends of democracy, Professor Richardson pinpointed the obvious guilt of those in our own government.  Here is my comment: 

“The House Select Committee, and you and I, all know, as HCR clearly points out today that "elected representatives and appointed members of our government were actively working to end our democracy." This is possible because enough of those whom our democracy gives the right to vote were able to be fooled into putting such a government into power. Democracy is fragile. It includes the potential for its own demise. Slovenians caught it in time but an ominous 40% of French voters, fortunately not enough to win, were willing to let go of it. On November 8, let's all vote like the Slovenians or the sane 60% of Frenchmen did. There is no other choice.”




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Blue Blazers and Chinos and other News

Originally, I had intended this to be a letter to the Palm Beach Post but after thinking about it, I decided to limit my correspondence to them to more serious matters, so I am just posting it on the blog for whatever it is worth.

'I’ve noticed in the Palm Beach Post’s “Notables” sections that the gentlemen often pictured there frequently wear a uniform.  Because many of the charitable events mentioned take place on Palm Beach Island, I presume most of these gentlemen reside there.  This casual uniform consists of tan trousers, possibly even khakis or chinos, suggesting involvement in some kind of “work” but above the “getting dirty” level calling for dungarees and always a blue blazer with brass buttons.  Is there a Town statute requiring possession of such a uniform by male residents of the Town of Palm Beach?'





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Law and Order: While on the subject of the news, this morning’s paper (4/27) described a long-running and very complicated legal battle regarding indebtedness resulting from the transfer of a piece of waterfront property, where corporate identities were repeatedly changed as to who owed what to whom.  

Today’s paper also described the lawsuits that the League of Women Voters, and others, were filing to stop some of the Florida governor’s autocratic attacks on democracy in the Sunshine state.

Both articles involved lawyers and remind me of what one of Shakespeare’s characters (Dick the Butcher) said in Henry VI, Part 2, “Kill all the lawyers!”  Some people think that this was the desire of the would-be revolutionaries in the play who felt that unfriendly lawyers and laws stood in their way, and others believe it illustrated the role of lawyers in preserving law and order from the assaults of Dick and his kind.  I wonder how the lawyers on both sides in the two situations mentioned above feel about this.  Which side was intending to support law and which side was trying to subvert it?




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Primarily of Interest to local Democrats here in Palm Beach County, Florida

Many friends assume I am a registered Democrat.  Well, they’re wrong.  I used to be but no longer am.  A friend recently asked me to attend a local Democratic Party event. I emailed the following response.

 “I prefer not to do anything with the local Democratic Party, although I would not vote for a Republican under any circumstances.  In fact, I am no longer a Democrat but registered as having No Party Affiliation. 

When they accepted DeSantis' life-long-Republican County Election Supervisor appointee (Wendy Link) into the Democratic party (so she could run as one and get elected )... and put a totally unqualified Joe Abruzzo in as County Clerk, who admitted to having to learn his new position "on the job” … and failed to criticize Democratic Sheriff Bradshaw for coddling sex pervert Jeffrey Epstein while in his custody for a year," I gave up on them.   

 I will work hard for whoever runs against DeSantis.  (Nikki Fried is the most qualified, Crist is 'stale bread' and Taddeo basically has only Latino support) but not through this "organization."  They are the reason Democrats lose elections in this State.  If I still were a Democrat, I would cast a write-in vote in their primary for Frank Cerabino.”




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Saturday, April 23, 2022

04-23-2022 - Conversations with Krakow, Dreadful vs. Fatal, A Bad Judge, A Comic Strip DeSantis Hates


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Conversations With Krakow

Many of the Ukrainians fleeing Russian aggression find their way to Poland.  We are fortunate that a friend, while visiting that country a few years ago, became acquainted with a gentleman in Krakow, a large city near the border with Ukraine.

Over the years they have been in touch with each other, and since the current war began, have been in frequent telephone contact, including occasional face time sessions.  Our friend asked many simple questions, aimed at drawing out his responses and has kept a log of these conversations which serve as far more searching interviews with someone ‘on the scene’ than what one might see on TV. 

There probably isn’t very much in these interviews that we were not already aware of, but this ‘log’ imparts a flavor and authenticity to these events that TV and the newspapers cannot provide. Editing for presentation on the blog has been kept to a bare minimum.

The first thirty days of the “log” follow.  As our correspondent’s ‘Conversations with Krakow’ continue, future supplements to it or selected excerpts, may appear on this blog.  

Map Showing Proximity of Krakow to
Polish-Ukraine border and city of Lviv in Ukraine.

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The ‘log’ is reproduced below with the writer, who lives locally, identified as “G” and the Polish gentleman, who is a hospital administrator, simply identified as “M."


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Feb. 27, 2022

G: The war started four days ago.  What is happening in Poland?

M:  Everyone is buying food, clothing and shoes for refugees.  People from different parts of Poland are offering their flats and homes.  I have a big house for mothers and children.  (M’s spouse is a pediatric oncologist.  Since health care in Poland is run by the government, both are probably government employees.)

March 4

G:  What is the latest news from Poland?

M:  More than 500,000 refugees have crossed our border.  Each day, more and more arrive.  Our friend from Zhytomir in the Ukraine says there is nothing left there.  Hundreds of volunteers from all over Poland are offering free transportation.

G:  Isn’t Poland afraid Russia will cross its border?

M:  No, that is not an option for them.  Russians aren’t that stupid.  We have here U.S. Army, UK soldiers and Germans.

G:  What is the next move?

M:  Well, we wait and send more weapons to Ukraine.  The Russians advance much more slowly.  So far, they have lost about 10,000 soldiers in just eight days.  Ukraine will be a Russian graveyard.

G:  I fear that Ukraine will be overwhelmed and destroyed.

M:  There will be nothing left, but they will fight for every inch.  But when it ends, they will be able to rebuild.  Eastern Ukraine buildings were poorly built from the Soviet era.  Thanks to world-wide support, it will be a better place.  We have to be optimistic!  By  1945, Warsaw was completely destroyed, the same as Dresden, but we managed to rebuild.  Now, both cities are flourishing.

March 5

M:   Day eight.  Many Ukrainian workers in Poland have left to fight for their homeland.   Ukraine still fighting.  Russia did not capture any big cities.  High courage and morale.

G:   Refugees?

M:   100,000.  Ukrainians are arriving each day in Poland.

G:   I feel so helpless.  Where should we send donations?

M.   PAH.  Polish Humanitarian Action.

G:   What do you think Putin will do next?  Hit NATO or nuclear power plants?

M:   I don’t think Putin will attach any NATO country.  Border guards cleared 129,000 refugees on Saturday.

March 6

M:   Trying to break morale of Ukraine by destroying civilian areas, creating massive flow of refugees.  They behave the same way as the Wehrmacht, Waffen SS or Red Army during darkest days of World War II.

March 10

M:  Refugee Update – Hi!  We do what we can do.  Some huge tents close to trains where they can get something to eat, something warm, sleep, and get the donated stuff.  Most of these people are moving to different cities in Poland and beyond.

The shelling of the base twelve miles from Poland was an attempt to intercept the supply line of weapons coming through Poland into Ukraine.  But supplies are still moving through.

March 13

M:  So far we have 200,000 Ukrainians in Krakow.  One in four here are Ukrainians.  We need to create schools for children.  20,000 to 30,000 kids, some are orphans!  Fewer Krakow couples have children.  Medical care is free but we pay taxes.

G:   What does your president say?

M:   That they will stay in Poland.  I think it will be one of the greatest achievements of democracy.  Even with sanctions, Russia is still a big threat to Ukraine.  Poland will not leave its neighbors in need!! What else can he say?

Churches are doing a lot.  Giving shelter and food.  You know that always there can be more done in everything, of course.  As you say, ‘the sky is the limit’ but sometimes the situation is overwhelming.

G:  Until tomorrow, I know it’s late in Krakow.

March 14

G:   What could China do?

M:   China is best friends to Russia, so I wouldn’t count on them.  China gets natural resources from Russia at a fraction of their cost.  Russia wants Ukraine’s agriculture.  Ukraine is a huge producer of food.  Russia doesn’t even plant a potato.

G:   I know Donbas is full of iron, oil, gas, and minerals.  Is that why it is so important to Russia?

M:   Crimea opens to the sea.  Same pattern with Donetsk and Lugansk. Putin hoped for no reaction from the West … ‘Who cares about Ukraine,’ he thought.

G:   Thanks for the history lesson.  You put what is happening in context.  If the Russian army is 200 miles from Poland, where does the close shelling come from?

M:   From Belarus, who have Russian rockets.  They have many, many short distance and intercontinental ones.

G:   I am amazed about all the war toys.  Incomprehensible.  Great minds, zillions of dollars in the war business instead of feeding the hungry and water and climate innovations and job training.

March 17

G:   Do you think a US/China meeting would be helpful?

M:   China is hesitant to come forward and is also slow processing diplomacy and politics.  But they already have changed language about the situation.  Two weeks ago, Chinese TV reporters weren’t saying anything about the war.  Today they officially reported the military attacks on civilian infrastructure.  The change is significant!  They can gain a lot with a weak Russian and the more, China will push into Siberia.

March 18

G:   What is significant about Siberia?

M:  Siberia is the crown jewel of Russia, the eastern part of the country:  full of oil, diamonds and precious metals.

G:   How is life in Krakow?

M:   We are working, Saturday shopping.  Sunday most shops are closed.  Clean up mess from the week.  Sundays – long walks with our dog and museums sometime.

G:    Would China invade Siberia?

M:   They are already there.

G:    How does that work?

M:    Each year less and less Russians are born.  Most of the population in the southern part is Chinese, with Chinese shops, schools, hospitals, everything.

G:    Sounds like eastern Ukraine.

M:    Exactly.  But China is doing it smarter.  No need for weapons if it dominates the economy in eastern Russia.  Russians are more dependent on China for food, fabrics, electronics, building materials;  Russia is a funny state.  They could have anything, yet they have nothing.  Putin in the 90s said once that some countries are great by having good roads, schools, and hospitals.  Others by having a strong army.  Russia is that other country.

China for years has lobbied for a new Silk Road, a huge railway project through Ukraine.  China  believed Russia that the war would last three or five days, so no big deal.  Reality?  Russia, by destroying critical infrastructure causes bigger financial losses for Chinese businesses.  Trains from China to Europe full of goods took 13 or 14 days to arrive, now about 35 days.

G:   I’m learning a lot from you. I will make your ‘Conversations with Krakow’ famous.  Good night from Boynton Beach.

March 19

G:   War Crimes?

M:   War crimes are obvious to everybody but the Russians.  They did not sign the Geneva Conventions, so forget the Hague.  Rather, say a second Nuremberg.

G:   Nazis set up concentration camps with food, water and beds.  Russia cuts off food, electric, water and targets children.  Who looks worse now?

M:   Similar to World War Two.  Okay, the Germans were cruel, but predictable.  Russians are like Huns. They destroy everything in their path.  Russians don’t have free elections.  In Poland, we didn’t have them from 1945 until 1989.  If you want to be free, you have to fight for it.  Like Americans.  The Polish Solidarity Union brought us elections.

If Putin can’t have Ukraine, there will be no Ukraine at all.  Russia used same tactics Syria, where they supported the Al-Assad regime.  He is creating a new humanitarian crisis, bigger than Syria and closer to Europe.

G:  I sent you a New York Times article about the possibility of Russia using chemical and small nuclear weapons.  Read it!

M:  We are aware of possibility of nukes but it is not so easy to use them.  Not just Putin decides.  There are a lot of steps.  Chemical is more the Russian style.  I think they say such stupid things to scare the West.

March 20

G:  At this time, how are the Polish people doing?

M:  Our hospitals are full of wounded refugee children but I think we can handle it.  More and more Ukrainians can get PESEL numbers, something like your Social Security numbers. With it, they can get jobs.  There is the matter of schools.  They are working on it in Warsaw.

Many Ukrainians want to start over here.  So I truly believe most of them can start a normal life, a long process but possible.  Before the war we already had a huge Ukrainian minority, so many refugees have someone here.  Some have enough money to rent flats for their regular price and others have nothing at all.

G:   It’s amazing to hear about what is happening from your country.

M:   I think Covid was a good occasion to prepare for something tragic, big and unexpected.  So, in some way we are better prepared.  We can’t be pessimistic. I am sorry

G:   It’s quite clear!

M:   I sent videos about Russian/Ukraine history.

March 21

G:   NATO, G7, EU meetings in Brussels I hope will be helpful.  Can phosphorus bombs be considered chemical today?

M:   Definitely chemical.  I hope sanctions will be implemented.

G:   I’m studying a bit of Russian history.  So far I don’t see a great time for the Russian people.

March 24

M:    I recommend to you a great book by Orlando Figes, “A People’s Tragedy – The Russian Revolution – 1891-1924.”  It’s the tragic history of Russia and helps to understand Russian mentality.  I just saw a U.S. soldier in Krakow and he was driving an electric scooter.

G:    Funny and strange.

March 26

G:    Nice reception in Warsaw from your president for mine, while Poland has welcomed close to two million refugees, incredible, in such a short amount of tiem.

M:    We do what we can, like always we know Ukraine is fighting for us, so we have to help them in every possible way.  This is very similar like the 1919-1921 Polish-Soviet War.  We stopped Russia from entering Europe.  Now, Ukraine is doing exactly the same thing.

March 27

M:    Biden’s speech – well said, and no lie.  Putin must be retired.  There is no government or democracy; only FSB/KGB/Mafia regime in Russia today.

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When Dreadful is Better than Fatal

Sometimes I wonder if maintaining Democratic control of Congress this year and re-electing a Democratic president in 2024 is as crucial for that Party as gaining control of State Legislatures is.  Should their efforts and resources should be turned in that direction?  

While Republican control of Congress and the White House would be dreadful, combining it with their control of State Legislatures would be fatal to democracy in the United States.  It would turn back the continuing democratic evolution of the Constitution which has occurred over the past 233 years.   The SCOTUS majority, something that you can blame on the gullible fools who voted for the defeated former president back in 2016, seems willing to do.  Amendments which we think of as permanent are at stake.

Before you make up your mind about this, read the first piece in this week’s New Yorker Magazine’s ‘Talk of the Town’ section.  (That’s the April 25 – May 2 issue) But do it in the morning.  Otherwise, it will cause you to lose some sleep tonight.  (I’m composing this at 2:19 a.m. after reading it at bedtime.)  Check it out by CLICKING HERE.  If that doesn't work for you, just visit https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2022/04/25/if-roe-v-wade-is-overturned-whats-next


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A Judge and a Lesson

For those who don’t think that their votes don’t really matter, take a look at the judge who just ruled against continuing masking mandates on public transportation.  It doesn’t matter whether you agree or disagree with her.  It’s how she got in the position of being able to make that decision in the first place. 

She was a last-minute political appointment made by the defeated former president, after the 2020 election, but before he had left office.  And with the three SCOTUS appointments that he made, her ruling is likely to be confirmed if it gets to that Court.   Some Americans will become ill, perhaps even die and some will certainly spread what remains of this still dangerous coronavirus because of this decision.  

Here's the first few paragraphs of an article about her, as it appeared in the Palm Beach Post on April 20.  See the paper for the rest of her background.

“By Kate Cimini – (Fort Myers News-Press - USA TODAY NETWORK – FLORIDA)


Airlines and other public transportation no longer need to require passengers to mask up, based on a Monday ruling by Florida native Federal Judge Kathryn Kimball Mizelle.  Less than two years after her appointment, Kimball Mizelle has upended the travel industry as airlines, buses, subways and rideshare companies scramble to change their rules. Here’s what we know about the Lakeland-raised judge.


Florida Middle District Judge Kimball Mizelle was confirmed to the lifetime position of federal judge by the Republican-controlled Senate in the weeks after President Donald Trump lost his bid for reelection. She was named to the bar in 2012. At age 33, she was the youngest Trump-nominated federal judge.  During the nomination process, the nonpartisan American Bar Association declared her to be not qualified, citing her lack of experience in court.


The Republican senators who voted for her pushed back against the assertion, lauding her work as a clerk for U.S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, as an attorney for the U.S. Department of Justice and in the private sector at law firm Jones Day, which at the time was representing the Pennsylvania Republican Party against private lawsuits and a suit from the Democratic Party regarding voting rights. The law firm later represented Trump in a suit seeking to overturn election results.

Sen. Marco Rubio, R-Fla., voted for Kimball Mizelle, while Sen. Rick Scott, R-Fla., did not vote as he was quarantining after a COVID-19 exposure.”


The message is that voting for Republicans at any level whatsoever opens the door to unqualified, if not bad, political appointments.  It is a party that has lost its mind.  It will take generations to undo the harm done to American democracy by the defeated former president and those of his contaminated party who blindly followed and supported him.

The lesson:  Never, ever, vote for a Republican who does not denounce the defeated former president and who does not shun the backing of his supporters.  And if you’re not into following politics and don’t want to think about this too deeply, here’s a suggestion to keep it simple: If your earnings are below $400,000 a year, just vote for any Democratic candidate running for any office being contested, locally, State-wide or national. (About 98% of all Americans annually earn less than that amount.)


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They’ll Read it in the Comics

The actions of Floriduh’s governor and his loyal Republican-dominated State legislature are providing a lesson to the generation still in elementary and high school.  

Some of these kids are brighter than their parents and not blind to the efforts of the governor and his supporters to dictate what may be taught in schools and what books may be used there.  At present, they still have newspapers and even ‘comic’ strips to reveal the truth to them. Check out the past few weeks of Lynn Johnston’s daily ‘comic’ strip, “For Better or For Worse” which says things that can get a teacher fired in Floriduh.

Mom welcoming son home after father threw him out when he told them he was gay.
Mother welcoming son back after
his father threw him out the night he 
told him that he was gay. 
 From 'For Better of For Worse'

Watch out.  When Floriduh's governor and legislature start messing with the First Amendment, it is time for real Americans to leave the State.  The handwriting is already on the wall.  The school district out in Las Vegas recently advertised in the Palm Beach Post for teachers who wished to move there from Floriduh, even offering a relocation bonus. 

But getting back to that next generation of voters.  The actions of Floriduh’s governor and his supporters are not going unnoticed.  A fifteen-year old recently pointed this out in a ‘Your Turn’ op-ed in the Palm Beach Post.  Unintentionally, Republican attacks on democracy are turning young people to the Democratic Party. The kids see what they are doing and are beginning to consider Republicans in the same category as fascists or other authoritarian groups that oppose democracy in our country, and who use the transparent disguise of promoting freedom to destroy it. 

The dummies who follow the defeated former president on his path to ignominy don’t understand that a person’s skin color and sexual orientation don’t make a difference to today’s kids, as they do to many of their parents. 

It will take time, but right will triumph as the MAGA generation of fools, even the religious ones, die off, wrapping themselves in the American flag they supposedly love so much as a shroud. They are unworthy of even saluting that flag, having attempted to bring down the Constitution of the nation of which it is the emblem.

As they die off, those who might believe in Hell will be welcomed by the hordes of right-wing Republicans already residing there. Only then will American democracy be safe.


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We Scooped the Times on Predicting Ukraine Outcome

On April 13, a  New York Times column by Thomas Friedman concluded with this thought: ‘I still hope Putin, the fool, will eventually seek a dirty, face-saving deal, involving a Russian withdrawal, some kind of independent status for the more pro-Russian eastern regions of Donetsk and Luhansk and no Ukrainian membership in NATO but giving Kyiv a green light to join the European Union, along with security guarantees against another Russian invasion.’

Readers of this blog will find almost the same thoughts voiced here by me back on February 25, about a month ago.  Go back and check.  Friedman is well paid. I pontificate for free.  

Regardless of what Friedman or I wrote, the issue is still in doubt.


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The United States Aided Poland in 1920 Establishing Precedent for Aiding Ukraine Today

The March 26 entry appearing in "Conversations with Krakow" above mentions the Polish-Russian War, which followed World War One.  Having replaced the Tsarist government and after a brief flirtation with true democracy, the Russian Communists attempted to militarily aid Communist insurgencies in Western Europe.  Poland stood in the way, and defeated the Russians, stopping their efforts.  Interestingly, many American volunteers, including pilots, joined with the Poles in that struggle. That can set a precedent for similar assistance to Ukraine today which stands in the way of similar Russian expansionism. Read about this by CLICKING HERE.


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